Psychiatry is a medical specialty that can be defined as a “synthesis discipline” through which the pursuit and maintenance of mental health – its main purpose – is obtained taking into account various factors: psychological, socio-cultural, political, legal, medical-pharmacological.
The field of psychiatry extends to many other medical specialties.
Psychiatric disorders and mental illness influence almost all aspects of a patient’s life, physical functions, behavior, and affectivity, perception of reality, interpersonal relationships, sexuality, work and leisure
Such disorders are caused by the interaction of complex, biological, social, and spiritual factors that can not always be clearly highlighted.
The task of psychiatry is to clarify the role of these various factors and their influence on the manifestations of mental illness. The notion of “mental illness” must enter the orbit of biology and medicine.
Examination of cognitive status, neuropsychological testing, common laboratory tests and imaging help to highlight the causes of mental illness.