Oncology is a branch of medicine concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and study of cancer.
Oncologic examination may discover a malignant disease suggested by some changes in the history and physical examination of the patient. Laboratory analyzes (through tumor markers) along with imaging (mammography, ultrasound, CT, MRI, endoscopy) may lead to additional information on the presence of the neoplastic process.
The histological evidence of malignancy must be obtained before staging and therapy.
Extension of the disease is important for planning the type of the therapy:
surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy or a combination of these.
Adjuvant chemotherapy is a treatment designed to eradicate micro metastases, prevent metastatic clinical disease, and improve survival.