Diabetes, nutrition and metabolic diseases represents the medical speciality that deals with the diagnostic and treatment of patients with metabolic dysfunctionalities.
Metabolism is a complex physical-chemical process by whitch complex organic substances are degraded or synthesized with release or energy consumption. By metabolizing the nutritional principles – proteins, glucides, lipids, minerals and vitamins, essential compounds are formed for the body, with an energetic, structural and functional role. The term metabolism comes from the Greek: metabolism – change.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by increased blood sugar, whether or not accompanied by increased insulin resistance with changes in metabolism.
Diabetes may begin or may evolve with acute metabolic complications – diabetic coma or chronic complications: diabetic neuropathy (neurological), diabetic nephropathy (kidney), diabetic retinopathy (ophthalmologic), cardiovascular complications, etc. Nutrition studies the energy needs and nutritional principles involved in the normal development of the body, the relationship between food intake and energy consumption as well as the consequences of excess food or nutritional deficiencies.
Metabolic disease represents any of the diseases or disorders that disrupt normal metabolism, the process of converting food to energy on a cellular level. Thousands of enzymes participating in numerous interdependent metabolic pathways carry out this process. Metabolic diseases affect the ability of the cell to perform critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing or transport of proteins (amino acids), carbohydrates (sugars and starches), or lipids (fatty acids).
Metabolic diseases are typically hereditary, yet most persons affected by them may appear healthy for days, months, or even years.
The Department of Diabetes, nutrition and metabolic diseases at the AIS Medical Center provides the following specialized assessments:
- Clinical examination:
- determination of blood pressure in supine position and orthostatism, heart rate;
- determination of ankle-brachial index (ABI);
- determination of body mass index (BMI) and abdominal circumference;
- performing sensitivity tests;
- general on apparatuses (measurement of vital functions: blood pressure, pulse, O2 saturation);
- formulation of a diagnosis plan and choice of therapy appropriate to the present condition.
- Paraclinical examination:
- blood analysis (biochemistry, hematology, immunology, electrolytes, etc.);
- urine analysis;
- imaging: radiography, MRI, CT, ultrasound;
- electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG);
- blood glucose determination on the test;
- determination of urine ketone bodies on the test.
3. The basic principles of therapy will be:· Treating the primary illness, if it has been identified;· Careful observation of signs and symptoms, respectively their treatment;· Supportive treatment;· Using anti-inflammatory drugs when needed;· Antibiotic therapy when required. 4. Patients are referred to other medical specialties for health assessment. The patients examined by the diabetologist benefit from the assessment of weight, metabolic profile and diabetes complications screening. The services offered have prophylactic value by identifying the risk factors that participate at the occurrence of metabolic and nutritional disorders. Also, the diabetologist certifies the diagnosis, stage, treatment (medical, nutritional) and monitoring of patients with metabolic pathology.